Psychology and Economics

Over thousands of years, several businesses have desired the position of science. Few have prevailed because they did not find out anything that was standing up to analysis as information. No human body of values, no issue how commonly approved or how comprehensive in chance, can ever be scientific.

Jared Bernstein [right], with a Ph.D. in Social Welfare from Columbia University, is not officially an economist, but he has organized many roles that an economist would usually keep. He was chief economist and financial advisor to Vice President Joe Biden and a member of President Obama’s financial group. Before becoming a member of the Obama administration, he was a senior economist and the director of the Living Standards Program at the Economic Policy Institute. Between 1995 and 1996, he was the deputy chief economist at the U.S. Department of Labor.

psychologyBernstein is engaged in equation adjusting, a frequent practice among economic experts. For Bernstein, it’s income. But what has the formula to do with reality? Economic experts believe that their equations explain truth perfectly, but no design ever comes associated with evidence that it does. As Keynes outlined, “Too huge a percentage of latest ‘mathematical’ business economics are simple blends, as obscure as the preliminary presumptions they rest on, which allow the writer to forget the reasons and interdependencies of the actual life in a labyrinth of exaggerated and unhelpful signs.” As others have outlined, the map is not the area.

So why do economists claim these? Is it because these statements explain how they themselves would act if given the opportunity? Was Bastiat amazingly lazy? Was Cruz really a selfish man? If those who create such statements would not have served in the methods they described, would not they then know that the statements were false? These all are unprovable statements about individual (or canine) characteristics. Economics as we know it is nothing but statements about how humans will act in given conditions. As such, it is nothing but armchair psychology, and the psychology is in accordance with the emotional features of the economists creating the statements. Greedy individuals believe that all individuals are. Unethical individuals believe that all individuals are. Damaged individuals believe that all individuals are. Wicked individuals believe that all individuals are. But, you know, they are wrong! John Blossom, a lecturer of psychology at Yale, says.

College Level Examination Program Purpose

CLEP (College Level Examination Program) is a program developed to provide learners possibilities to obtain higher education degree credit for certain academic places of study by testing their knowledge through specific placement assessments. CLEP is the abbreviation for College Level Examination Program. CLEP is developed for learners to accomplish higher education credit by passing exams for the appropriate undergrad college programs. Most institutions provide credit and/or placement for passing CLEP exams provided by the College Board.

CLEP-TitleCLEP exams involve a sequence of multiple-choice questions that are evaluated on a range of 20-80. Most institutions consider a score of 50 a passing grade. However, some academic institutions provide more or less credit according to your ranking and the subject. For example, a score of 50 in Spanish might compensate 6 credits to a college student while a grade of 65 might give 12 credits. Consult with a consultant or CLEP professional at your preferred university to find out the range of credit given for a particular discipline.

As of 2007, CLEP exams are provided in the following areas:


  • Financial Accounting
  • Intro Business Law
  • Information Systems & Computer Applications
  • Principles of Management
  • Principles of Marketing

Composition & Literature

  • American Literature
  • Analyzing & Interpreting Literature
  • English Composition
  • English Literature
  • Freshman College Composition
  • Humanities

Foreign Languages

  • (Check with the school for foreign language CLEP exams offered)

History & Social Sciences

  • American Government
  • Intro to Educational Psychology
  • History of the United States I, II (Early Colonization to 1877 / 1877 to Present)
  • Human Growth & Development
  • Principles of Macroeconomics
  • Principles of Microeconomics
  • Intro to Psychology
  • Social Sciences & History
  • Intro to Sociology
  • Western Civilization I, II (Ancient Near East to 1648 / 1648 to Present)

Science & Mathematics

  • Biology
  • Calculus
  • Chemistry
  • College Algebra
  • College Mathematics
  • Pre-calculus
  • Natural Sciences